Culture is an important element that people bring to a team. In this lesson, we will look at the role that culture plays within a team and you will have the chance to reflect on how culture can influence team behaviours. We will also explore collaborative communication.
Teamwork and Culture
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Dimensions of Culture
As a team member, it’s important for you to understand the unique challenges that cultural differences bring to team life—both your own culture, and the cultures of other team members. In his research on comparative cultures, Dr. Geert Hofstede showed that there are some characteristics of culture that can drive a person’s behaviour. And, because culture helps determine our internal values and attitudes, it can play an important role when it comes to teamwork. Hofstede identified five cultural dimensions:
- The Individual Dimension — measures whether your home culture values making decision for the benefit of the group or for the individual. This can affect your working style, whether it’s linear (e.g. completing a job and passing it on to the next person) or more collaborative (e.g. working on a project with others).
- The Power Distance Dimension — measures the difference in power between a leader and team members. This can affect how people from different cultures would describe the qualities of a successful leader. If you are not used to the western approach of having leaders participate on an equal footing with other team members, this can be confusing.
- The Certainty Dimension — measures how much information a team member has to have before they are comfortable making a decision. People are either more comfortable with rules, regulations, and controls, or more comfortable in unstructured, unpredictable situations.
- The Achievement Dimension — looks at how much someone values quality of life versus achieving goals. For example, some societies make extended parental leaves a priority, while others place more value on employees working overtime. These two approaches can lead to conflict if some team members feel they work harder than others.
- The Time Dimension — measures a culture’s approach to long-term planning versus short-term planning. Whether team members make decisions for immediate gain or for longer-term benefits may have an impact on how the team performs.1
Cultural Reflection: Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions
Teamwork and Communication
Tone of voice and body language can be a challenge, especially when you are not working in your first language. If you don’t understand the non-verbal cues, focus on the content of what is being said, and ask questions to clarify.
Collaborative and Authoritative Expressions
According to intercultural communication expert Sherwood Fleming, all English-speaking cultures use two different forms of speaking in order to express their thoughts and opinions: collaborative and authoritative. It’s worthwhile to consider the differences between collaborative expressions and authoritative expressions. Different situations call for different forms of communication. For instance, authoritative expressions are appropriate when answering questions at a job interview, when an individual wants to demonstrate their competence and convince the interviewer of their abilities. However, team interactions require more of a collaborative style of communication. Here are some ideas about expressing an opinion using Sherwood Fleming’s collaborative approach:2
- Offer feedback. First, show that you are open to other team members’ opinions by offering them feedback about what they’ve just said. When you disagree, use phrases like: “I see your point of view, but…” or “I understand what you mean, but….” When you agree, use phrases like: “That’s exactly how I see it, and….” or “That’s a good point, and ….”
- Add an “I” statement. Next, add in an “I” statement, such as: “I think,” “In my opinion,” or “From my perspective.” This tells the listener that you see the conversation as an exchange of opinions among equals, and that you’re not speaking as if you have authority over them.
- Express your opinion. Now that the listener is receptive to listening to your perspective, express your opinion.
1 Hofstede, Geert. 2001. Culture’s Consequences : Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
2 Fleming, Sherwood. 2012. Dance of Opinions: Mastering Written and Spoken Communication for Intercultural Business Using English as a Second Language. Sherwood Fleming Communication.